top of page

Women Human Rights Collection 

November remembers the elimination of violence against women.

The violence against women is a Human Rights violation which needs to be Prevented.

Then How can we Aid to End Violence against Women and Girls . .  

(a) Within family to educate children to "Respect People" is the very First Step in Preventing Violence against Everyone

(b) Schools (teachers, students and every person involved at School) and Workplaces (every person involved at work place) should continue to Create a Culture that Rejects Violence or Mistreatment against Women and Girls 

(c) Each Community should make efforts to Give Women and Girls, who became the victim of Violence, an Easy Access to Medical Care & Legal Representation

(d) Each Community should Give Wider Access to Education to All Women and Girls (e.g., basic education, academic education, vocational education, sex education) 

(e) End Forced Early Marriage and Premature Pregnancy 

(f) Inform Law Enforcement Officers (or other organizations in respective community that deal with Violence against Women and Girls), when a woman/girl experience, see or hear domestic, public or state violence against women and girls 

The violence against Women & Girls must be Prevented . . and prevention is possible . . and above all Important . . Let's all Participate in preventing violence against women and girls to let every women and girls in each and every community to live in a  safe and peaceful environment which they all deserve . . 

Please note the four short articles are within website of PBC &  WRC . . Click Here To View 


Urgent Ways to Prevent Crimes against
Women and Girls & to Protect them

2017/2/26    Alicia  Jie-Hye Lee

Incessant endeavor has been made for decades concerning the rights of women and girls; and gender equality. However, women and girls in this world are still constantly subject to violence and discrimination through child marriage, sex trafficking or sex slavery, and forced labor deprived of making personal choices in their lives. They are invariably experiencing nightmares held captive as a prey for rape, torture by perpetrators as a weapon of war, and are constantly rejected in gaining access to education and political participation. Then, are these women and girls getting a prompt cure and the equal justice they deserve from these nightmares . . Unfortunately No. Thus, the  crucial inquiry that must be raised by the all-in-all international legal community concerning the human rights of women will be whether the vulnerable women and girls have the adequate road to get remedies for the injustice they come up against. Certain state of affairs of women and girls have opportunities to receive remedies yet regretfully majority of them do not. This implies international legal community still has a number of remained deeds that must be implemented at this point.

Ever since the emergence of International Day of Women in North America and across Europe at the beginning of the twentieth century, the action relevant to human rights of women and girls has been strengthened by a number of countries. And though the progress was slow, there exists a sample of successes. For instance, women groups in South Africa celebrating their achievements of the Customary Marriage Bill; the women in rural areas gradual easily accessing to financial services such as credit, savings and insurance through technical innovations relevant to financial services; Indian Supreme Court recognizing sexual harassment in the workplace as both a personal injury to the affected woman and a violation of the very fundamental human rights of women, etc..

There are a number of women and girls in various parts of the world, however, who still cannot or not allowed to take advantage of the accessible international law and its equal opportunities to realize their inherent rights recognized by law, and avail suitable manners to receive remedies to seek justice for the wrongs that were committed on them. Further and importantly, there are times where no adequate international law is in existence to be availed in the first place. Thus, there are two crucial key points that must be looked into. First, the current international statutes and rules relevant to the human rights of women are gradually not accumulated yet at the same time too complicated, that at times, it becomes blurry to determine which international laws should be applied both in the domestic court legal process and in the international tribunals. At times, the statutes and rules are even unavailable when needed. Thus, straightening out accurate and necessary international laws from inaccurate and repetitive ones must be made.

Next, not all domestic courts could or are willing to resolve the states of the victims of women and girls and bring justice, for there are times where domestic law on the particular case is absent. In that event, it is crucial to clarify which international tribunal could be availed, what the procedure might be, and what international laws are employed. Additionally, through this process, there may likely be barriers that could limit the options of women and girls in resolving the case; such as procedural, evidential, sentencing, state-cooperative issues, etc. These issues should be settled as well. In summary, there needs a better understanding of a stout legal procedure with fewer hurdles when dealing with women and girls being the victims of formidable crimes nationally and internationally. 


The long-term project of this short article is to provide a far-reaching and detailed plan to ameliorate the condition of women and girls and develop a formalized international legal system that every woman and girl in every community could take advantage of and look into the accessible international legal procedures, and be conscious and informed of the approachable remedial means when atrocious crimes are committed against them. The research project will be an impetus to the respective states in order for them to seek justice for women and girls by making efforts in availing the unobscured application of international law through the domestic legal systems, and at the same time propose a well-organized framework for the international legal community to act in accordance with the roadmap that could fortify in resolving the sensitive matters with respect to the very rights and remedies of women and girls. And through this amelioration of rights and remedies, the roles of women will be clearer as to its significant part it will contribute to their respective state and international community in general.


Women and girls have their voices. And the voices they have must be heard for they deserve to be heard. Yet, at times the voices can’t be heard because of unorganized and unsystematic implementation of certain international laws that are making various excuses. We should always remember the international laws and tribunals are created for the very purpose: For the sake of the Victims, Not for the people to make a name for themselves nor for the institutions to gain financial benefits.  And the international legal system remains a lot to learn from the voices of the victims and those who speak for them. 

** Reference

1. Bagley Constance, Managers and the Legal Environment: Strategies for the 21st Century, Cengage Learning, p. 392 (2016), pp. 1 – 818 (The Indian Government passed its first law concerning rights for women in the workplace in 1948 . . Sexual harassment in the workplace is perhaps the recent area of gender anti-discrimination law to be developed)  


Forgotten Rights & Remedies of
Women and Girls in Armed Conflict

2018/4/21     Alicia  Jie-Hye Lee

* Introduction

To empower women & girls and encourage gender equality have been embodied as global development objective since the 1990s. Under ‘The Principle 4 of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD)’ 1994 Programme of Action, it states, "advancing gender equality . . empowerment of women . .  elimination of all kinds of violence against women and ensuring women to control their fertility . . are priority objectives of the international community . ."
And ever since its announcement, approximately two decades have passed. However, the question of how realistic development could be made in order to enable women and girls to be empowered and encounter gender equality are yet to be remained as a debatable area.

A. Education

The first stage in achieving gender equality & empowering women and girls will be ‘Education’. Education for women and girls has been, still is and will be underscored, for it is never enough to emphasize its significance. Especially in underdeveloped countries and in rural areas, when girls and women have equal access to education, and get to participate fully in economic and business decision-making, they may likely be the key driving force against poverty. The reason education is regarded as imperative is that it is likely to cease the continuation of poverty. And in order to cease the continuation of poverty, through education, a member of the family can transmit the intellectual and cultural capital necessary to stay out of or change their impoverished condition. Namely, there must be positive intervention that could bring changes to (a) poor health, (b) insufficient capital, (c) vulnerability to life changes and (d) less educational opportunity along with less participation in communal activity, which are the main reasons the poverty continues. And in order for a person to achieve good health, sufficient capital, a stable life, education & participation it is usually through education a person will learn and know how to maintain good health, how to earn money and to make his or her life stable, and be educated and rationally speak up nationally and internationally. 

The other reasons "Education" is significant for women and girls is because, education increases literate girls and women, which enable them to acquire knowledge, which are the main means for women and girls to make positive intervention (in aforementioned (a) - (d)), which is likely to have positive effects, such as increasing various fields of representation by women and girls. And through these voices, other women and girls will have the urge to learn, and another and another. And through the knowledge an increasing number of women and girls have acquired through education, for instance, sex-education, it may likely (i) increase safe sex reducing HIV, Sexually Transmitted Diseases (hereinafter "STDs"), etc., (ii) decrease early marriage, (iii) decrease human trafficking and (iv) increase income in households, which eventually will contribute in reducing poverty in the household decreasing the continuation of poverty in general. In addition, in order for girls and women to be educated in a good environment, violence against women and girls must draw to a close. The violence against women and girls (e.g., physical abuse, sexual violence, sexual harassment, emotional/psychological violence) is one of the worst systematic and widespread human rights violations, which is one of the major obstacles to end gender inequality and discrimination against women and girls. In a venue, where violence against women and girls is not taken seriously, it is crucial to investigate the factual basis of incidents and its policies and statutes within the domestic legal system, if not possible for various reasons, through international legal system as well; for it may likely mean women and girls are not respected and not treated equally compared to men, which leads to the proof of gender inequality and discrimination against women and girls. Thus, for women and girls to be treated impartially, it is crucial for international community as a whole and importantly for men to realize that women and girls has the very rights to control their body and their future.

B. Health 

The second crucial stage to achieve gender equality and to  empower women and girls is ‘Birth Control’ & ‘Sanitary Products’.


1) Birth Control 

Firstly, in order for women and girls to be educated in a good environment, their ability to control their fertility must be ensured. Women and girls having control of their fertility may imply women and girls have the right to control her body and her future. And to control these two crucial aspects, current birth control devices are acting as a savior for women and girls letting women and girls to have “safe sex" without the fear of unwanted pregnancy along with the transmission of HIV, STDs, etc.. And for these reasons, hundred millions of women and girls in developing countries could now delay or stop getting unwanted pregnant. However, many women and girls in developing countries still have limited access to birth control devices due to (a) gender-based barriers, (b) religious concerns, (c) limited birth control methods, and (d) poor health care services.

(a) Gender-based Barriers 

First, there must be revision of thoughts by men and boys. Ever since women had the right to vote, which proved women were not the second class citizens in the 1800s; during WWI and WWII women taking on roles of men; and economic development which permeated in the mid 1900s where women were proven to have thoughts of higher education, which actually did lead to additional income in the household; have changed the standpoint as to the very role of women and girls. However, these changes are not sufficed. For example, according to a 2014 study as to the ratio of the male and female labor force participation rates versus GDP per capita, the developing countries stand out for the underrepresentation of women in the labor force; while men are nearly four times as likely as women are getting paid. Additionally, based on further research, it is said that female labor force participation is abnormally low in the Middle East, North Africa and other similar regions as well. Further, pursuant to a 2012 study, a number of husbands embedded in traditional marriage, preferring stay-at-home wives, have a tendency to exhibit attitudes, beliefs and behaviors that undermine the role of women. And these thoughts could be contributed by the viewpoint that accomplishment by women in education, careers, economics and politics will be taken no notice if their role as a wife (i.e., nurture children, housework) is ineffective, dis-incentivizing women from favorable options in building up their capacity and profession. And by stressing the role of women on their traditional role as this, it is highly likely the use of birth control in the household will decrease by men. Thus, it is very important for spouses and men to change their attitude toward the very role of women and girls. And in order for the perspective of spouses and men to change, there needs to be intervention and mediation availing the policies or programs established by the government or the local communities that could educate men and boys, in order to strengthen them to change their thoughts and behaviors toward the role of women and girls, that  empowering women and girls is not a tool to make women and girls to be smarter than men and boys, yet to equally balance the ability of men and boys & women and girls to make a healthier family inside and out that is favorable to both men and boys & women and girls, and further could be a valuable force in development of the country they reside. 


(b) Religious Concerns 

It is said that in developing countries and rural areas where a large number of people are suffering from AIDS, there are a number of religious organizations and the like that are opposing to birth control. Further, in certain developing countries, local bishops have instead recommended that abstinence and ethics be used to prevent the spread of HIV. However, this is unrealistic. Generally, in countries where government does not have strong authority and the technology of science is little known due to lack of capital and education, spread of HIV is prevalent, which leads to incessant (aforementioned) the continuation of poverty. Thus, in order for the viewpoints of the people in the developing countries and rural areas as to birth control to be affirmative and favorable, the role of the government cooperation with the international community, especially as to the notion of religious organizations concerning birth control, educating people through policies or programs will be essential.

(c) Limited Birth Control Devices

As for birth control devices, there are 18 effective birth control devices, that could reduce unwanted pregnancy. However, there is limited access to these birth control devices in rural areas. And the cause of the limited choices as to birth control devices is likely due to lack of financial support from the government that has limited financial supply, which leads to poor health care services. 

(d) Poor Health Care Services 

Thus, for the people in developing countries and rural areas to have similar access to health-maintaining interventions as the people in developed countries, it is significant for the government along with the national and international companies, organizations & non-profit organizations to educate women and girls as to birth control device choices and cooperate in funding the poor health care services in rural areas giving both women and men who resides in the area an easy access to birth control devices, which will unload  one of the serious burdens of women and girls face every day.


2) Sanitary Products 

Next, in order for women and girls to be educated in a good environment, the women and girls need to have a clean environment within them. There are, however, still many women and girls in rural areas in under-developed countries who do not have sanitary products (e.g., pads, tampons) and relies on rags, and in certain cases, cotton wool, grass, plastic and even paper. And because of these conditions, many women and girls are hesitating to go to school or work, because of the shame and embarrassment they may likely have to confront, which prevents a number of women and girls from getting education or earning money for their future and their family, which is far from aiding in halting the continuation of poverty in the region. Therefore, it is crucial as well for the respective governments, national and international NGOs and people to extend further collaboration in fund to supply sanitary products to the women and girls who have difficulties having access to these necessities.


* Conclusion

By ameliorating the aforementioned problematic notions as to (a) gender-based barriers, (b) religious concerns, (c) limited birth control methods, and (d) poor health care services, many women and girls in developing countries may likely have easy access to both birth control devices and sanitary products. Further, easy access to these devices and products will give women and girls an opportunity to control their body and future through various fields of education, widening the very role of women and girls by contributing to end the continuation of poverty, and simultaneously and dynamically strengthen the key notions as to Gender Based Equality & Women and Girls Empowerment. 


** References

1. Seema Jayachandran, The Roots of Gender Inequality in Developing Countries, (November 2014), (policy approaches to address gender inequality)




Revision of  Two Aspects
as to Gender Equality and Equity &
Women and Girls Empowerment
2016 - 2020 :  Education & Health

2019/6/24     Alicia  Jie-Hye Lee 

From international law perspective, there are situations where women experience a different type and degree of hardships, oftentimes harsher than men. In the last 20 years, ceaseless discourse as to serious issues of women and girls have been held forth to by different protocols, treaties to protect the very rights of women. Additionally, as the rights of women are covered under ‘International Bill of Rights’ yielding arrays of general principles and instruments of international law, the Bill needs to be abided by every nation. Yet, gender has not been an acute issue in the realm of international law; and due to ‘reservation clause’, ‘lack of sanction’ in the event of violation of principles, etc., a feminist approach to international laws still incur questions; and controversial matters arise. 

The violation against women is recognized in international law as violation of human rights. And women and girls have tendency to be in worse situations in an armed conflict than men and boys. The protection and remedies of women in armed conflict has been specifically noted in the jurisprudence of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia and the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda & the International Criminal Court and the Resolutions of the United Nations Security Council.


However, as to the issue of the very human rights of women and girls, currently, by a number of international criminal law experts and activists, the International Criminal Court and the United Nations is viewed to not fulfill their duties as much as it should be. Further active and realistic well-planned action will be desperately necessary and indispensable. As this, heightened awareness of women in conflict and post-conflict, unavoidable challenges still exist. And considering violence against women in conflict is likely the upshot of worsened gender inequalities already existing domestically, it will be crucial for the higher education institutions that are focused on the rights of women to research on how to create additional and safer protections and remedies of women in conflict that could yield positive affects at both international and domestic level.

And lastly, to achieve further progress towards gender equality and equity in this serious situation where a number of women and girls face discrimination and violence every day, it will be significant to incessantly research as to the enhancement of technology that could be developed and availed based on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948), which is relevant to the very right of women to achieve property along with women in rural areas getting online education relevant to right to receive education . . equal to men. And it will be crucial to respect the difference a nation – especially under-developed nations – has in executing norms, as long as its excuse is recognized reasonable by the international community.


Current & Incessant International 
Concerns of Human Rights
of Women and Girls & Road to Possible Resolution through Research

2020/11/26    Alicia  Jie-Hye Lee

In Prep




Alicia  Jie-Hye Lee

In Prep




Alicia  Jie-Hye Lee

bottom of page